Under the digital economy era, it is especially important to grasp the development and development trend of the zone chain. This article will depart from the global perspective and the domestic perspective, inventory out of the seven status of the development of the global block chain in 2021.
In order to fully display the development of block chain production, the 01 block chain, Zero Zhihua will launch the “Census Report (2021) of China Block Chain Products Development (2021)”, welcome relevant institutions to participate in the provision of innovation cases.
(1) Global Perspective: The blocking growth of the block chain industry, the emerging field track is hot
1. The block chain becomes a multi-country strategy, encrypting monetary policy two-level differentiation
In the encouragement of block chain technology development, more and more countries have risen to the country’s strategic level, and various measures to actively encourage block chain technology innovation and industrial development.
China in 2019, the 18th collective study of the Central Committee of the Central Committee, the development of the block chain technology will be put into the national strategic level. General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that “the important breakthrough of the block chain as the core technology independent innovation, clear the direction of the main attack, Increase investment, and strive to overcome a number of key core technologies, speed up the development of block chain technology and industrial innovation.
In the United States, in October 2020, the US government announced the “National Key Technology and Emerging Technical Strategy”, incorporating the block chain into the control technology to protect the security of national infrastructure. In addition, most states in the United States have clearly developed regulatory positions in block chain technology, many state governments have developed or enact relevant laws in the field of zone chain. In addition, countries including Germany, Australia, Singapore have also clearly clearly developed the policies of the block chain. September 18, 2019, the German Federal Government reviewed and issued the “German Block Chain Strategy”, clear the national strategy of the zipper chain, and believed that the block chain technology in the future is the part of the Internet, which can effectively help the development of Digital Digital Economy in Germany. .
The Australian Government released a block chain industry roadmap for up to 52 pages in February 2020, emphasized the potential of block chain technology and proposed a method of designing a specific industry regulatory framework. Singapore also invested a lot of funds in terms of technological innovation, the government allocated 12 million US dollars in December 2020 to promote the innovation and commercial use of zone chains.
While layout and research on block chain technology, countries are also strengthening supervision on virtual monetary markets. China has prohibited trading activities related to virtual currency in China, and policies have also been issued this year to suppress virtual currency transactions and “mining” activities.
In the United States, despite a large number of encrypted monetary investors and block chain companies, the country has not yet developed a clear regulatory framework for virtual currency asset categories. The US Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) usually regards encrypted currency as a securities. The Commodity Futures Trading Committee (CFTC) refers to Bitcoin as a commodity. The Ministry of Finance is called currency, and the US Taxation Bureau (IRS) will return the currency Class is the property of federal income tax purposes.
The US encryption currency transaction belongs to the Regulatory Scope of the Bank Confidentiality (BSA), and must be registered in the Financial Crime Law Enforcement Network (FinCen).
European Union, Canada, Japan and Australia, etc., clearly clarified the asset categories of encrypted currencies and adopt a positive policy. The encrypted currency in most parts of the EU is legal, and the government’s governance and taxation vary from all member states.
Canada classizes encrypted investment companies as monetary service enterprises (MSB), encrypting currency and other commodities in taxes, encrypted currency trading platforms and traders can carry out business after registration, the country has become the first in February 2012 Approved the country of the Bitcoin Exchange Trading Fund (ETF).
Japan recognizes that the encrypted currency is legal property according to the “Payment Service Law” (PSA), while regarding the transaction income generated by the encrypted currency as “miscellaneous income” and taxing investors accordingly. Australia will encrypt the currency into legal property, so you need to pay capital profits tax, and the exchange can operate freely in the country.
The UK regards encrypted currency as a property, and the Encrypted Monetary Exchange must register in the UK Financial Conduct Regulatory Authority (FCA) and is prohibited from providing encrypted derivatives, and investors need to pay capital profits for encrypted trading profits. On September 7, 2021, the Bitcoin Act of Saldova officially entered into force, and became the first country using Bitcoin as a legal currency.
2. The size of the block chain is growing, and the banking industry leads
Block chains and other distributed books show great potential in improving business operation efficiency and creating new value delivery methods, industry and companies are implementing these technologies and integrating them to existing infrastructure and industrial planning middle. According to Statista data, the global spending in the block chain solution in the 2021 is expected to reach $ 6.6 billion. Prediction indicates that the expenditure of block chain solution in the next few years will continue to grow, and it will reach nearly $ 19 billion to 2024.
Source: Statista’s effect and subdivision industry from the block chain, according to the “2021 Global Block Chain Survey: Digital Assets New Age”, according to the 20021 Global Block Chain Survey: 1280 in 10 regions of the world After the sampling survey, the executives and practitioners showed that the vast majority of participants (80%) indicated that the solution provided by the block chain, digital assets or encrypted currency will bring new income streams to the industry. In addition, from various industries, the banking industry is in a leading position in the use block chain, followed by telecommunications, media and entertainment, manufacturing, healthcare and life science, retail and consumer goods, government. It is expected that the expenditure of block chains in retail and consumer goods has grown the fastest from now until 2024. 3.NFT, encrypted currency, Yuancai track is hot in 2021, based on the new model of the block chain, the new state is constantly emerging. In the 2021 hot words announced in the “Collins Dictionary”, NFT was awarded the first name, and the metaverse, encrypted currency (CRYPTO) was also shortlisted. At the beginning of March 2021, NFT has burst growth. NFT is all called Non-Fung IToken, and Chinese is expressed as a non-pendulinary communications. NFT is a data unit stored on the block chain, using photos, video, audio, and other types of digital files as underlying assets, and supports authenticity and uniqueness of the underlying asset.
According to NFTGO website statistics, the NFT industry overall market value exceeded 10 billion US dollars as of mid-December 2021. It should be noted that the NFT market is still in the primary stage, and the development of copyright protection and digital asset industry is also facing speculation and compliance issues. In addition, how to integrate into existing business models remain to be explored.
Data Source: NFTGO
Crypto is an abbreviation of cryptocurrency, and encrypted currency is equally hot this year. At the beginning of 2021, the overall market in the encrypted currency continued to be hot, and most of the market value ranked sharply in the currency of the currency, and its overall performance is far from the mainstream capital market.
Among them, the best BNB of BNB has increased up to 1551.61%. The derivatives related to encrypted currency are also started to flourish. On October 19th, the United States is listed on the Bitcoin Related Exchange Trading Fund (ETF), and the Legend of PROSHARES Bitcoin Strategy ETF (Bito) is a history. High record.
Encrypted currency is increasinglycoming an important component of mainstream investment agency assets. According to the Survey of Natix InvestmentManagers, Global Trading Company, 28% of institutions in all the investigations, 28% of them are currently investing in encryption currencies, including nearly three One institution stated that they plan to increase the configuration of encrypted currency next year.
In addition, the publication of the new research says that traditional alternative investors are slowly keen to encrypt the currency. 31% of hedge fund managers, 24% of alternative investors and 13% of private equity fund managers said they planned to include encrypted currencies into their portfolios in the next one to two years.
According to the “Collins Dictionary”, the Yuan Universe refers to a persistent online virtual world, known as the “New Dream Future of the World”. At present, all walks of life are chasing Yuan Cosmic Road. Among them, mainstream technology companies use VR, AR and other simulation technology to break the “full Internet”, October 28, 2021, Facebook announced that the company’s name will change to “Meta” Expressing the company’s determination to the emerging computing platform mainly focused on virtual reality. Tencent, Ying Weida and other science and technology giants are also involved in the track.
In addition, virtual game platforms that are characterized by detrimenting this year are also ushered in this year, and virtual platforms such as DECENTRALAND and ROBLOX provide virtual material rights to players through NFT, and support users free to create virtual ecosystems, and create in virtual world Yuan Universe.
4. More than 90% of economies in the world are exploring the central bank digital currency
CBDC is a digital currency supported by the central bank support and release. As the encrypted currency became more and more popular, the willingness of the central banks in the world issued CBDC is also more intense.
The Atlantic Council’s Geographic Economic Center launches the central bank digital currency (CBDC) tracker, providing the latest tracking information for the Global Central Bank (CBDC) digital currency research, the CBDC tracker analysis shows that there is 87 in the world due to mid-December A country (more than 90% of GDP) is exploring CBDC, and this number is only 35 in May 2020.
At present, many countries have fully launched digital currencies. On March 31, 2021, the East Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) enabled its central bank digital currency DCASH to become the first currency alliance in CBDC. In the Caribbean, including Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia and Grenada are implemented in digital cash systems.
On October 25, 202, Nigeria launched E-NAIRA, which became the first country outside the Caribbean. In addition, in the world’s four central banks (Fed, European Central Bank, Japan Bank and England Bank), the Fed is the only central bank that has not promised digital currency test projects. 14 countries including China and South Korea are currently in the pilot phase of CBDC, and ready to be fully launched. Source: Atlantic Council Research, Bank Ofinternational Settlements, International Monetary Fund, John Kiff Database
(2) Domestic perspective: block chain production in the middle of the production, digital RMB achievements
1. Help the development of block chain technology, rectify virtual currency transactions, “mining” activities
As early as 2019, the development zone chain technology has become a strategy of national level. General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that when the 18th collective study of the Central Political Bureau, “It is necessary to put the block chain as the important breakthrough of the core technology independent innovation, clear the main attack direction, increase investment, and strive to overcome a number of key core technology, speed up Block Chain Technology and Industrial Innovation Development.
The Central and local governments have always been continuously proposed to support the development of supportive and regulatory policies to help zone chain technology. In March 202, the block chain was written to the “National People’s Republic of China on the National Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China on the 14th Five-Year Plan” and the Outline of the Route Target Outline. Promote the technology innovation of block chains, with the league chain as the key development area block chain service platform and financial science and technology, supply chain management, government service and other field applications, improve the supervision mechanism.
In June, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Net Letter Office jointly released the “Guidance Opinions on Accelerating Block Chain Technical Application and Industrial Development”, pointing out the focus supply chain management, product traceability, data sharing and other entity economic fields, and promoting block chain fusion applications. Support industry digital transformation and industry high quality development. Promote the application of block chain technology to public service fields such as government service, survival, and smart cities, support public service transparent, equality, and precise.
Since this year, the policy is also firmly confined to the encrypted currency while supporting the production of industrial applications. Since virtual currency is easy to use illegal activities such as money laundering, and lack of exchange mechanisms, it is easy to cause inflation and market chaos, and my country has always takes a pressure on virtual currency.
In September this year, the People’s Bank released the “Notice on Further Prevention and Disposal of Virtual Money Trading”, further explicitly point out the properties of virtual currency and virtual currency related activities, clearly proposing the working mechanism of the virtual currency trading speculation, strengthening the transaction speculation Risk supervision.
On September 22, 2020, President Xi Jinping announced that China’s carbon dioxide emissions in the United Nations general debate struggled to achieve peaks in 2030, and carbon neutralization was achieved 2060. Virtual monetary mining as a high-energy, high-power project, strictly controlled by various provinces and cities in the background of dual-carbon objectives.
At the beginning of March this year, the Inner Mongolia Development and Reform Commission issued a draft of the comments, and fully cleared the virtual currency mining project. Subsequently, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and other provinces have carried out “Qing Mine” activities.
On September 24th, 11 departments of the National Development and Reform Commission jointly issued the “Notice on rectifying virtual currency” mining “activities, rectifying virtual currency” mining “, then Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi and Hainan and other provinces have also begun.
2. The number of registered enterprises in the block chain continues to rise, and the industry is about to meet “steadily climbing recovery.”
From the number of registered enterprises from the block chain, this number has continued to climb this year. According to the National Internet Emergency Center “Block Chain Home” website data shows that as of the end of December 2021, the national block chain is related to more than 93,600. From region to regional distribution, there are high densities in coastal areas, and Hainan’s block chains, including approximately 37.23% in Guangdong Province, which is the highest in the country.
From a distribution of business forms, applications and solutions account for 36.4% and 29.8%, in addition, infrastructure (12.24%), industry services (11.90%), and underlying platforms (9.56%) together constitute a complete business form.
Data Source: Block Chain House
From the maturity of block chain technology, the well-known IT consulting organization Gartner published “2021 China ICT Technology Maturity Curve Report”, assessing China’s emerging or sought after. According to China ICT technology maturity curve, the current China block chain technology is about to complete the process from “foam rupture low” to “steadily climbing recovers”, and the next stage will enter the production maturity period, expected to be more Mature and effective applications in a wide range of scenes. Source: Gartner “2021 China ICT Technology Maturity Curve Report”
From the industries of the block chain, asset management, public services are still an important scenario in the area of ??the block chain. In addition, the block chain also has an important application scenario on some emerging scenarios. In the application of data sharing and privacy computing, the use of mass data under Digital Economic Age requires a close combination of various data security techniques.
In addition, the emerging fields such as NFT, Yuanhe Universe are also booming this year, and the technology giants and other start-up companies have also developed related application scenarios.
3. The digital RMB is full of flowering, and the three challenges have to be broken.
Digital RMB is the statutory currency of the digital form issued by the People’s Bank, aims to create a new RMB, with a new type of RMB, with a digital form of public cash demand, with support for retail payment, rapid and efficient, sustainable innovation Open competition financial infrastructure, support the development of China’s digital economic development, enhance the level of financial development, and improve the efficiency of currency and payment system.
In 2014, the central bank became a special research team to start the framework, key technologies, issuance of circulation environment and related international experience. At the end of 2017, the People’s Bank of China began organizing business agencies to jointly launch a statutory digital currency (E-CNY) research and development test.
At present, the R & D test has basically completed the top design, functional development, system commissioning and other work. In October 2020, in Shenzhen, Suzhou, Xiongan New District, Chengdu and Future Winter Olympics on the basis of “4 + 1” closed pilot, new Shanghai, Hainan, Changsha, Xi’an, Qingdao, Dalian six pilot places, Form a pilot layout of “10 + 1”.
At the same time, there is also six regions such as Guangzhou, Zhejiang, Tianjin, Fujian, Jinan and Hubei, etc. in the pilot area, will also be included in the “Tent45” financial development plan or other policy documents.
2021, November 3, Hong Kong Financial Science and Technology Week 2021 Conference was held, in the “Retail CBDC: a Lesson from the Fast Movers & The Roadahead” round table forum, Mu Changchun, Dangshan Digital Monetary Research Institute, introduced the digital RMB latest progress. According to Mu Changchun, as of October 22, 2021, the number of digital RMB accumulated transactions reached approximately 62 billion yuan, and the digital RMB personal wallet was 1.4 billion, and 10 million for public bags.
In addition, more than 1.55 million merchants have supported digital RMB wallet payment, with more than 15 billion points, involving public utilities, catering services, transportation, retail and government services and other areas. In this round table, Mu Changchun mentioned three major challenges officially launched by digital RMB.
First, improve the terminal construction. Although the current digital renminbi pilot project has been operated very smooth, the construction of the system is still on the road.
Second, improve safety and risk management mechanism. In the full life cycle of the Digital RMB, the security management of the operation system is always ensured, including encryption algorithms, financial information security, data security, and business continuity to ensure system security and stability.
Third, you must clear the regulatory framework. The latest released “People’s Bank of China” People’s Bank of China (Revised Draft Draft) “has included the cash and digital RMB of the physical form into it. On the basis of updating the original laws and regulations, digital RMB also needs to set up separate regulatory measures and management measures to make supplements.